Monday, June 24 Tuesday, June 25 Wednesday, June 26 Thursday, June 27 9:00 ‑ 10:30 am TUT1: Tutorials 1 TUT2: Tutorials 2 TUT3: Tutorials 3 TUT4: Tutorials 4 10:30 am ‑ 12:00 pm PLCCM1: Physical layer, channel coding and modulation 1 CRNGN1: Cognitive Radio and Next Generation Networks 1 RRM1: Radio Resource Management 1 12:00 ‑ 1:00 pm 1:00 ‑ 2:30 pm PLCCM2: Physical layer, channel coding and modulation 2 CRNGN2: Cognitive Radio and Next Generation Networks 2 RRM2: Radio Resource Management 2 2:30 ‑ 4:00 pm PLCCM3: Physical layer, channel coding and modulation 3 4:00 ‑ 4:30 pm 4:30 ‑ 6:00 pm IMET: IoT, M2M and Enabling Technologies 6:00 ‑ 7:00 pm

## Monday, June 24

### 9:00 AM - 7:00 PM (America/New_York)

#### TUT1: Tutorials 1

9:00 Distributed Mobility Management for Future Internet
H Anthony Chan (Huawei Technologies, USA)
The cellular networks, which are currently serving 5 billion cellular phones and mobile devices globally, have employed centralized control with different network functions arranged in a hierarchy. Standardization of Internet mobility management in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has been primarily in centralized mobility management including Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) and its extensions, and the deployments have primarily been in a centralized manner for the hierarchical cellular networks. Yet there are already numerous variants and extensions of MIPv6 including Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6), and Network Mobility (NEMO), which have been developed over the years owing to the different needs that are found afterwards. Deployment of Internet mobility mechanisms can then become complicated, especially when interoperability with different deployments is an issue. The Internet has employed distributed control functions and is more flattened, i.e., less hierarchical. As the cellular networks converge with the Internet and may become more flattened, the needed mobility management functions are expected to be distributed rather than centralized. Despite the large amount of standards work in Internet mobility in IETF primarily with centralized mobility, the deployment in the Internet is still slow. Such a fundamental change to distributed mobility is needed in the mobile Internet. Mobility management with centralized mobility anchoring in existing hierarchical mobile networks is quite prone to suboptimal routing and issues related to scalability. Centralized functions present a single point of failure, and inevitably introduce longer delays and higher signaling loads for network operations related to mobility management. To make matters worse, there are numerous variants of Mobile IP in addition to other protocols standardized outside the IETF, making it much more difficult to create economical and interoperable solutions. The existing mobility management standards in IETF, the issues of mobility management for the future mobile Internet, the trend of the mobile Internet and the proposed distributed mobility at IETF are explained.
2:00 Dynamic Spectrum Access: A Survey
Subir Das (Applied Communication Sciences, USA)

#### TUT2: Tutorials 2

9:00 Context Aware Computing for Next Generation Wireless Networks
Prithiviraj Venkatapathy (Pondicherry Engineering College, India)
When humans converse with each other there are in a position to implicitly use their location information or context to increase the conversational bandwidth. Unfortunately this idea does not translate well to humans interacting with computers but by improving the computer access to context one could increase the richness of communication within human computer interaction and enable it to provide more useful, computational services.
2:00 How to Synchronize Carrier and Timing Loops in Digital Modems (Someone has to do it!)
Frederic j harris (San Diego State Univ, USA)
Digital Signal Processing has become the standard method of signal conditioning and signal processing in modulators and demodulators of modern communication systems. These systems require acquisition and tracking of frequency and phase of carrier and timing clock from the received signal when neither carrier nor clock is present. The synchronization information must be extracted from implicit side information embedded in the modulated signal or from explicit side information accompanying the modulated signal in pilot signals. Synchronization techniques abound with ad-hoc methods developed by clever analog designers. Many sub-optimal synchronization techniques evolved prior to the development of optimal synchronization techniques. Many techniques were developed prior to the heavy reliance on DSP in receivers. As the transition to DSP occurred, analog based synchronization schemes often survived the transformation and are employed directly as digitized versions of analog techniques. An important lesson to be learned in DSP based solutions is that a return to first principles may offer performance benefits. We do that in this presentation. We start with a review of receiver structures, parameters to be estimated, eye diagrams, and constellation diagrams. We then review phase lock loops and their digital counterparts as well as simple performance measures. We then examine timing recovery schemes operating with and without the benefit of data decisions. Finally we discuss carrier frequency and phase recovery schemes. The synchronization processes for a number of modern communication systems will be discussed and used to illustrate the material discussed in the presentation. MATLAB demonstrations are used throughout the presentation to illustrate many of the concepts developed in the tutorial.

#### TUT3: Tutorials 3

9:00 Application of Short Erasure Correcting Codes for Opportunistic Spectrum Access and cognitive radio MAC
Muhammad Moazam Azeem (Orange Labs, France)
Cognitive Radio (CR) aims to dramatically improve spectrum access, capacity and link performance, the main driver being the traffic surge due to new communication devices (smartphones) and the resulting spectrum shortage. The inefficient usage of some large parts of licensed spectrum has made the situation even worse. Some flexible schemes have been designed, aiming to a dynamic sharing of the spectrum. One of these access schemes has the form of a primary/secondary scenario, where a secondary user (SU) accesses the channel without coordination with PU while it is not active and it is called opportunistic spectrum access (OSA). No coordination means that SU performs sensing to detect the possible PU activity. However, sensing is not perfect and exhibits two kinds of impairments: False alarms and non-detection. While the former is a cause of inefficiency of the secondary reuse of the channel because of missed opportunities, the latter is a cause of harmful interference to the primary user.
2:00 Low Overhead Communication Mechanism for Constrained Sensor Gateway in IoT
Soma Bandyopadhyay (TATA Consultancy Services, India)
Today's world is experiencing a speedy progress towards "Internet of Everything" and hence a smart-world. Sensing environment, interpreting sensor data, analyzing aggregated sensed data from different parts of the environment, making suitable decision, and accordingly taking actions are various steps involved in building smart-world. Important actors are undoubtedly sensors and sensor- gateways, and the communicated sensor data. But sensors and sensor-gateways have limitations in terms of their bandwidth and energy required for communication. In this perspective reduction of communication overhead in terms of bandwidth and energy usage is extremely necessary. Current tutorial presents low overhead application protocols with reliability in the context of IoT (Internet of Things). The objective of this tutorial is to present a best choice of low overhead application protocol for transmitting sensor data over the Internet, addressing the limitations of energy and bandwidth usage by the constrained sensors/sensor-gateways.

#### TUT4: Tutorials 4

9:00 ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network
Ata Elahi (Souther Connecticut State University, USA)
Wireless Sensor and Control Networks are quickly becoming an integral part of the automation process within chemical plants, refineries, and commercial buildings. As a result, the market for wireless sensor and control networks is rapidly growing. Furthermore, according to a new market research report, it will be a $3.8 billion industry by the year 2017. To accommodate this burgeoning technology, numerous standards are being developed for wireless sensor and control networking such as SP100.11(Wireless Systems for Automation) by the Industrial Standard for Automation (ISA), Wireless HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) by the HART organization, IPv6 over Low Rate Wireless Personnel Network (6LoWPAN) by IETF (the Internet Engineering Task Force) and ZigBee by the ZigBee alliance. Applications of ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Networks are: Commercial Building Automation, Home automation, Industrial and process automation, Energy and utility automation, Health Care, Remote Control. ## Tuesday, June 25 ### 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM (America/New_York) #### PLCCM1: Physical layer, channel coding and modulation 1 10:30 Adaptive Algorithms based-Time Domain Iterative Channel Estimation for MC-IDMA Systems Olutayo O. Oyerinde (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa); Stanley H. Mneney (University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa) Multicarrier-Interleave Division Multiple Access (MC-IDMA) scheme is an attractive Multiuser technique that has generated a large interest in the research community. However, availability of accurate estimate of channel state information (CSI) at the receiver end of the system remains an essential factor in the optimum performance of the whole system. In this paper, two families of Least Mean Square (LMS) Algorithm, namely, Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) and Variable Step Size Normalized Least Mean Square (VSSNLMS) algorithms are proposed for implementation of time domain iterative channel estimation for MC-IDMA systems. Channel estimation in time domain is considered in this paper because it has earlier been confirmed that if the number of OFDM subcarriers exceed the number of channel taps, as the case is in most practical OFDM based systems, the time domain channel estimate is more accurate than the channel estimation in frequency domain. The performance of the proposed adaptive algorithms based-time domain iterative channel estimators are validated in comparison with the LMS-based channel estimator proposed earlier in literature. 10:48 Phase Tracking in Bluetooth Receivers Using Extended Kalman Filtering Ahmad Nsour (Oakland University, USA); Alhaj-Saleh Abdallah (Oakland University, USA); Mohamed Zohdy (Oakland University, USA) This paper investigates applying Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to non-coherently estimate the phase of Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK) modulation scheme in Bluetooth receivers. The paper examines the performance of Extended Kalman filters for Additive White Gaussian channel noise (AWGN) with IEEE802.11 coexistence. Both technologies operate in the unlicensed 2.4GHz Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) Band. Experimental results for Extended Kalman Filter for Gaussian channel are provided. 11:06 A New Timing Metric For Timing Error Estimation In OFDM Anagha Rathkanthiwar (RTM Nagpur University & Priyadarshini College of Engineering, India); Abhay Gandhi (Viswesarayya National Institute of Technology, India) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a bandwidth efficient modulation scheme used widely for high speed data communication. In this OFDM scheme, intersymbol interference (ISI) and intercarrier interference (ICI) occur due to synchronization errors. Fast, simple and robust synchronization algorithms are necessary for OFDM systems. In this paper, a simple and robust algorithm for timing synchronization is proposed. In OFDM downlink transmission, every terminal perform synchronization by exploiting reference symbols called training symbols of received frame. Performance analysis shows that the proposed timing offset estimator have better performance despite being simple. Performance is studied over AWGN and time-dispersive Rayleigh fading channels with the conclusion that the proposed synchronization techniques result in better performance with respect to all the parameters. 11:24 Performance of Concatenated Coding Scheme over Nakagami Fading Channels Ilesanmi Oluwafemi (University of KwaZulunatal, South Africa); Stanley H. Mneney (University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa) In this paper, the performance of two concatenated coding schemes is investigated over Nakagami fading channels. The concatenation coding scheme with iterative decoding involves convolutional code as the outer code and super-orthogonal space-time trellis code (SOSTTC) as the inner code. The pairwise error probability (PEP) for the two schemes were derived and their performances evaluated by computer simulation 11:42 Channel Estimation and Link Level Evaluation of Adaptive Beamspace MIMO Systems Konstantinos Maliatsos (University of Piraeus & National Technical University of Athens, Greece); Panagiotis N. Vasileiou (University of Piraeus, Greece); Athanasios G. Kanatas (University of Piraeus, Greece) Beamspace MIMO (BS-MIMO) systems have been recently proposed as a means to address the two key weaknesses of conventional MIMO systems: the antenna size and the need for multiple RF chains. Based on Electronically Steerable Passive Array Radiators (ESPAR), the research effort on BS-MIMO focuses on the development of functional MIMO transmission schemes with efficient multiplexing and beamforming capabilities with the use of a single RF chain while maintaining extremely small antenna size. Previous studies have shown that for small sized antenna arrays, BS-MIMO systems clearly outperform conventional systems in terms of system capacity. However, until now research is limited to the ESPAR antenna properties and theoretical results. This paper makes the first step to practical system design and focuses on BS-MIMO channel estimation. Basic estimators are applied in a BS-MIMO system with adaptive pattern reconfiguration. Finally the first, fundamental link level evaluation results are produced from simulation and system performance is compared vs. equivalent conventional MIMO. ### 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM (America/New_York) #### PLCCM2: Physical layer, channel coding and modulation 2 1:00 An OFDM Frequency Offset Estimation Scheme Based on Differential Combining of Correlations Jeongyoon Shim (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Jaewoo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Youngpo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Youngseok Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Seokho Yoon (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea) This paper proposes an integer frequency offset (IFO) estimation scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Specifically, we combine two successive correlation values differentially to reduce the effect of timing offset, and then, estimate the IFO by searching for an IFO candidate which maximizes the differentially combined correlations. The proposed scheme does not require the knowledge on the timing offset unlike the conventional IFO estimation scheme and numerical results show that the proposed scheme is not only robust to the timing offset but also exhibits a better performance than the conventional scheme when the possible maximum value of timing offset is not known. 1:18 A DS-UWB Radar With a Correlation Accumulating Distance Estimator Youngpo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Jaewoo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Youngseok Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Jeongyoon Shim (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Seokho Yoon (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea) This paper proposes a novel direct sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radar system with a reduced correlation processing time. The distance estimator in the proposed DS-UWB radar accumulates the correlator outputs averaging out the noise in the correlator outputs, and thus, reduces the correlation processing time by shortening the required length of the DS-UWB signal. Numerical results confirm that the proposed DS-UWB radar estimates the distance with a reduced correlation processing time while providing a better estimation performance compared with the conventional DS-UWB radar systems with a distance estimator exploiting the correlations individually. 1:36 A Novel Unambiguous BOC Correlation Function for BOC Signal Tracking Youngpo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Jaewoo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Youngseok Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Jeongyoon Shim (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Seokho Yoon (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea) In this paper, we propose an unambiguous binary offset carrier (BOC) correlation function for BOC signal tracking. Specifically, we address a two-stage process of combining partial sub-correlations composing sub-correlations of BOC autocorrelation to construct an unambiguous correlation function with a main-peak sharper than those of the conventional unambiguous BOC correlation functions. From numerical results, it is demonstrated that the proposed correlation function with a sharp main-peak provides a better tracking performance compared with the conventional unambiguous correlation functions. 1:54 Novel Adaptive Techniques for Digital Beamforming Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) Receivers Thomas Yang (Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, USA); Liang Zhang (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, USA); Douglas Smith (Air Force Research Lab, Information Directorate, USA); Daniel Zhou (Air Force Research Lab, Information Directorate, USA) This paper presents two efficient adaptive signal processing techniques for co-channel interference suppression in digital beamforming Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) receivers. The adaptive techniques are employed at the receiver's baseband in the digital signal processor, and time-varying weight update is automatically generated at each iteration during the adaptation process. The first method separately updates the real and imaginary parts of the weight vector along their respective gradient directions with distinctive optimum step sizes, while the second method directly updates the weight vector components as complex numbers, aiming at minimizing the error signal in the next iteration. Computer simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. The simulation results confirm that, compared to the classic complex-valued Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, both proposed techniques exhibit improved interference suppression performance, with the second method performing slightly better than the first one. 2:12 Temporal Characterization of Rainfall Time Series Analysis for Wireless Networks Akintunde Alonge (University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa); Thomas J.O. Afullo (University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa) Estimation analysis for rainfall time series can be applied as a technique in improving dynamic rain fade countermeasures. In this study, the nth-powered sinc function is considered in analyzing the time series patterns in Durban, South Africa. With an assumed value of n = 2 and β = 0.9, the proposed function is seen to provide an appropriate envelope with Root Mean Square ranging from about 13% to 30%. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Power Spectral Density (PSD) show that the frequency components of the measured rainfall residues compare well with those of the proposed function. At simulated microwave frequencies of 12 GHz and 40 GHz, the function is seen to mask and track the fluctuating rainfall specific attenuation patterns at our site. ### 2:30 PM - 4:00 PM (America/New_York) #### PLCCM3: Physical layer, channel coding and modulation 3 2:30 Performance of SIMO MRC SC-FDMA over Shadowed Rice Land Mobile Satellite Channel Jyoti Gangane (University of Malaga, India); Mari Carmen Aguayo-Torres (University of Malaga, Spain); Juan Jesús Sánchez-Sánchez (Ericsson Spain, Spain) Nowadays, satellite communications are undergoing strong development in order to follow explosive increase in requirement for superior data rate, higher capacity and omnipresent connectivity. On the apex of that, satellite communication industry has to keep the promptness with terrestrial communication technology, which has shown strong and fast development. In this view, the deployment of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology is a promising candidate. MIMO along with multicarrier modulation technique can be good solution to mitigate frequency selective fading. Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) has shown robustness to multipath fading and has got the same characteristics as that of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). The main advantage of SC-FDMA over OFDMA is that it has low Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Due to low PAPR, SC-FDMA is used for uplink transmission in Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) systems. The link level performance of LMS system is diminished by rapid amplitude variations of the received signal. These fluctuations are caused by multipath propagation and attenuation due to shadowing. In this paper we have investigated Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO (1×2)) SC-FDMA performance for Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity over correlated shadowed Rice LMS channel, where the Line of Sight (LOS) is following Nakagami-m distribution. 2:48 Analysis of OFDM Error Floor in Indoor Channels by Stochastic Modeling Adriana Lipovac (University of Dubrovnik, Croatia); Vlatko Lipovac (University of Dubrovnik, Croatia); Mirza Hamza (University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina) In this paper, we propose a model for estimating the error floor in a small-time-dispersion environment - typically indoor, where both channel and overall OFDM symbol are presented stochastically. The developed novel model for the error floor prediction involves modified common channel time dispersion parameters as well as the ones characterizing the OFDM signal. Its validity was confirmed by the results of the corresponding Monte-Carlo simulations. 3:06 Power and Spectral Efficient CI/MC-CDMA System through Dynamic User Allocation Santi Prasad Maity (Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur, India) An efficient user allocation algorithm for high capacity carrier interferometry/multicarrier code division multiple access (CI/MC-CDMA) system through simultaneous support of high and low data rate transmission of users is suggested here. High priority users are assigned all subcarriers to transmit at high data rate, while low data rate users are gradually increased through alternate use of subcarriers and odd-even splitting of CI codes. The cross-correlation among different code patterns are reduced through phase shift of even (odd) CI code using odd (even) sub-carriers by an amount of$\pi/2$and odd (even) CI code using odd (even) sub-carriers by -$\pi/2\$, all measured with respect to orthogonal CI codes assigned to support high data rate transmission. This minimization of crosscorrelation among different code patterns is exploited for new user allocation and also improves bit error rate (BER) through cancellation of multiple access interference (MAI), which results from simultaneous data transmission of large additional users. Simulation results show that dynamic user allocation maintains acceptable BER at much higher user capacity through the increase in number of subcarriers i.e. frequency diversity but at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation results also show that dynamic user allocation improves PAPR reduction compared to fixed allocation.
3:24 Study on the Suitability of LDPC Combined with Diversity Technique in Broadband Wireless Systems
Hemalatha Mahalingam (SASTRA University, India); Prithivraj. Venkatapathy (Pondicherry Engineering College, India); Jayalalitha Subbaiah (SASTRA, India); Nagarajan Sudhakar (SASTRA University, India)
This report lays out the idea of introducing LPDC codes along with the spreading sequence to improve noise immunity of the signals traversing in wireless environment. With the need to make communication techniques efficient and reliable, spread spectrum has gained importance for its various added advantages. LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) have been gaining limelight in the past few years. Comprising of relatively faster encoding and decoding techniques, LDPC codes are capable of recovering the original message even after a large part of the message has been corrupted. To achieve lesser BER, spread spectrum concept has been used along with LDPC codes. In this paper, the signal was first spread and then the encoding and decoding algorithms were employed. The original message is finally recovered after de-spreading the signal. Features such as Approaching Shannon capacity, Good block error correcting performance, and Low error floor can be exploited by this technique. The presented idea would be applied to broadband wireless systems such as Wi-Fi and Wi-Max. This work demonstrates the suitability of LDPC along with spread spectrum technique in broad band wireless systems.
3:42 Directional Transmission by 3-D Beam-forming using Smart Antenna Arrays
Bo Han (Aalborg University & Athens Information Technology, Denmark); Rasmus Hjorth Nielsen (Cisco Systems, Denmark); Ramjee - Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
Beam forming is a widely used antenna technique to adjust the radiation beam towards one direction, which is quite useful for interference aliment, and overcome multiple access interference, common channel interference as well as multi path fading, thus increase the capacity of mobile networks. By using adaptive algorithm, which can form a spatial directive beam that make the main lobe of the pattern towards the target user while let the side lobe towards the interference,that can make full use of the signal and reduce the effect of the interference. Thus fixed antenna array can be configured to be smart antenna with the help of digital signal processing technique. However, all the conventional 2-D beam forming is implemented by a fixed vertical angle of in the Spherical coordinates, while only consider the beam pattern on cylindrical coordinates. while the practical application needs a 3-D beam be focused at one point. in order to have maximum transmission efficiency as well as minimal interference, a 3-D beam is necessary, this paper presents a 3-D beam forming technique that can be used for high directional transmission.

### 4:30 PM - 6:00 PM (America/New_York)

#### IMET: IoT, M2M and Enabling Technologies

4:30 Jamming Attack: Behavioral Modelling and Analysis
Sachin Babar (Aalborg University, India); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
The security attacks on wireless sensor network (WSN) are increasing. These security attacks degrade the performance of WSN, e.g. energy consumption, throughput, and delay. These are biggest obstacle to make WSN greener. The aim of the paper is to model the behavior of jamming attack and analyze its effect on performance of WSN. Jamming attack jams the traffic in network by blocking the channel. The behavioral modelling and analysis of jamming attack in realistic situations (e.g. sensing in industrial application by following all network rules), gives the clear understanding of jamming attack execution. The paper also presents the possibility of jamming attack in cluster-based WSN, i.e. intelligent cluster head (CH) jamming attack. This degrades the performance of WSN around 30% more than normal reactive jamming attack. The paper finally proposes the requirements for designing the efficient solution against jamming attack.
4:48 Using High-Powered Long-Range ZigBee Devices for Communication During Amateur Car Racing Events
James Wakemen (Rowan University, USA); Matthew Hodson (Rowan University, USA); Philip Shafer (Rowan University, USA); Vasil Hnatyshin (Rowan University, USA)
In the world of amateur motorsports the racers are always looking to improve their skills. This has led to the development of various monitoring and data logging systems, often coupled with "action sports" cameras which capture the car performance in enough detail to allow the driver to study the race after completion. In this paper we investigate the possibility of the using data logging systems together with IEEE 802.15.4 high power devices for race car - pit crew communication during the race. This will allow the pit crew to monitor the car and get the driver to stop before a catastrophic failure occurs. We used OPNET IT Guru ver. 17.0 network software package to conduct our simulation study. Specifically, we focus on such aspects of 802.15.4 protocol as communication range, reliable data delivery, achievable throughput, and end-to-end delay experiences by the application during the car race.
5:06 A Fuzzy Approach to Trust Based Access Control in Internet of Things
Parikshit Narendra Mahalle (Aalborg University, Denmark); Pravin Thakre (Jayawantrao Sawant College of Engineering, Pune, India); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastruktur (CTiF), Aalborg University, Denmark)
In the Internet of things (IoT), the activities of daily life are supported by a multitude of heterogeneous, loosely coupled ubiquitous devices. Traditional access control models are not suitable to the nomadic, decentralized and dynamic scenarios in IoT where identities are not known in advance. This makes the trust management in IoT more promising to address the access control issues .This paper present a Fuzzy approach to the Trust Based Access Control (FTBAC) with the notion of trust levels for identity management. The presented fuzzy approach for trust calculations deals with the linguistic information of devices to address access control in the IoT. The simulation result shows that the fuzzy approach for trust based access control guarantees scalability and it is energy efficient. This study also proposes FTBAC framework for trust based dynamic access control in distributed IoT. FTBAC framework is a flexible and scalable framework as increasing number of devices does not affect the functioning and performance.
5:24 MHBCDA: Mobility and Heterogeneity aware Bandwidth Efficient Cluster based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network
Dnyaneshwar Mantri (Aaborg University & CTIF, GISFI India, Denmark); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) offers a variety of novel applications for mobile targets. It generates the large amount of redundant sensing data. The data aggregation techniques are extensively used to reduce the energy and increase the network lifetime, although it has the side effect of reduced reliability. In the mobile environment, it is necessary to consider the techniques which minimize the communication cost with efficient bandwidth utilization by decreasing the packet count reached at the sink. This paper proposes the mobility and heterogeneity aware bandwidth efficient Cluster-based Data Aggregation (MHBCDA) algorithm for the randomly distributed nodes. It considers the mobile sink based packet aggregation for the heterogeneous WSN. It uses predefined region for the aggregation at cluster head to minimize computation and communication cost. The MHBCDA is energy and bandwidth efficient. It exploits correlated data packets generated by varying the packet generation rate. It prevents transmission of redundant data packets by improving energy consumption by 4.11% and prolongs the network life by 34.45% as compared with EECDA.
5:42 MOHRA: Multi Objective Hybrid Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network
Nandkumar Kulkarni (Aalborg University, Denmark); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has emerged as a promising paradigm to monitor the physical world and it allows the network deployment at a very low cost. In WSNs energy consumption of a node is a critical aspect as it is a limited resource. Since the nodes are tiny devices with limited storage, computational capability and power, it is necessary that all protocols at all layers in WSNs must be energy efficient. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this paper, we present a survey of the state-of-the-art Hybrid Routing Algorithms (HRA) for WSN. Here, we present classification of different HRA for the various approaches chased. This paper also proposes a novel energy efficient Multi Objective HRA (MOHRA). MOHRA uses a two-level hierarchical clustering and the data packets are forwarded using best route which uses weighted sum of different metrics to achieve both energy efficiency and energy balance throughout the network. MOHRA takes into account Total Energy consumption, Control Overhead, Reaction Time, LQI, and HOP Count for selecting the best path from source to sink.

## Wednesday, June 26

### 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM (America/New_York)

#### CRNGN1: Cognitive Radio and Next Generation Networks 1

10:30 A wireless network in an unconventional media
Alina Mihaela Badescu (University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania); Valeriu Savu (University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania); Octavian Fratu (University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania); Simona Halunga (University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romania); Alexandra Saftoiu (IFIN-HH, Romania); Iliana Brancus (IFIN-HH, Romania); Gabriel Toma (IFIN-HH, Romania); Stanca Denis (IFIN-HH, Romania)
This work presents the main features of a neutrino detector in a salt mine. The influence of the medium on propagation and antenna is analyzed, together with its consequences on the minimal energy to be detected and performances of electronics.
10:52 Cooperative Spectrum Sensing with Simple Multi-Relay Switching
Yawgeng A. Chau (Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan)
To save the power and time of total relay processing and to achieve a higher bandwidth efficiency in relay usage, a simple multi-relay switching scheme is proposed and analyzed for cooperative spectrum sensing, where energy detection is employed for the detection of a spectrum hole. In the cooperative spectrum sensing with relay switching, not all available relays are activated and used at all time. A relay is used only if the strength of faded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for its reporting channel to the cognitive destination (CD) is larger than a preset threshold. Otherwise, another switched-to relay is considered and tested for its usage. The probabilities of false alarm and correct detection are derived for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. The average number of active relays is evaluated for the examination of total required relay processing. Various numerical results are presented for performance illustrations. Based on the numerical results, the proposed scheme can enhance the detection performance in many aspects.
11:15 Capacity Improvement through Buffer-Aided Successive Opportunistic Relaying
Nikolaos Nomikos (University of the Aegean, Greece); Demosthenes Vouyioukas (University of the Aegean, Greece); Themistoklis Charalambous (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden); Ioannis Krikidis (University of Cyprus, Cyprus); Dimitrios N Skoutas (University of the Aegean, Greece); Mikael Johansson (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)
In this work, we present a buffer-aided successive opportunistic relaying (BA-SOR) scheme that aims to improve the average capacity of the network when inter-relay interference (IRI) arises between relays that are selected for transmission and reception. In order to exploit the benefits of buffering at the relays, we propose a relay selection policy that decouples the receiving relay at the previous time slot to be the transmitting relay at the next slot. Furthermore, we impose an interference cancelation (IC) threshold allowing the relay that is selected for reception, to decode and subtract the IRI. The relaying scheme proposed selects the relaying pair that maximizes the average capacity of the relay network. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated through simulation and comparisons with other state-of-the-art half and full-duplex relay selection schemes, in terms of outage probability, average capacity and average delay. The results reveal that a tradeoff has to be made between improving the outage on the cost of reduced capacity and increased delay, and vice versa. Finally, conclusions are drawn and future directions are discussed, including the need for a hybrid scheme incorporating both half and full-duplex characteristics.
11:37 A Cyclostationary Spectrum Sensing Scheme for High Traffic Environments
Jeongyoon Shim (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Jaewoo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Youngpo Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Youngseok Lee (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea); Seokho Yoon (Sungkyunkwan University, Korea)
This paper proposes a novel spectrum sensing scheme for cognitive radio (CR) systems in high traffic environments where primary users (PUs) might randomly depart or arrive during the sensing period of a CR user. We first model the spectrum sensing problem in high traffic environments as a binary hypothesis testing problem, and then, derive a test statistic based on the cyclostationarity of the PU signals by applying an estimate of spectral coherence function of the PU signal to the generalized likelihood ratio. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed scheme provides a better spectrum sensing performance compared with the conventional spectrum sensing scheme based on the energy of the PU signals in high traffic environments.

### 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM (America/New_York)

#### CRNGN2: Cognitive Radio and Next Generation Networks 2

1:00 Spectrum Measurement and Analysis of TV Band in Support of Cognitive Radio Operation in India
Kishor Patil (Aalborg University, Denmark); Knud Erik Skouby (Aalborg University, Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
TV White Spaces constitutes the major portion of the VHF and UHF TV band which is geographically unused after digital switchover. The most important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. Through spectrum measurement campaign we have estimated the spectrum utilization of TV band in Pune, India. We have designed the measurement set up and methodology for the measurement campaign. Our spectrum occupancy analysis provides the realistic view on the spectrum opportunities in India for (i) cognitive radio operation in TV band;(ii) spectrum refarmng of TV band. Also we have stressed on the need of quantitative analysis of TVWSs availability and compatibility studies for protection of incumbent services for Cognitive Radio access of TVWSs in India.
1:22 IMS Intra- and Inter Domain End-to-End Resilience Analysis
Chayapol Kamyod (Aalborg University & Center for TeleInFrastruktur, Denmark); Rasmus Hjorth Nielsen (Cisco Systems, Denmark); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
This paper evaluated resilience of the reference IMS based network topology in operation through the keys reliability parameters via OPNET. The reliability behaviors of communication within similar and across registered home IMS domains were simulated and compared. Besides, the reliability effects when increasing requested traffics were presented; as well, the results were compared when applying equally load balancing of a 1:1 redundancy of S-CSCF unit into the core registered domain. The results exposed insight reliability behaviors of communication within similar and different registered domains.
1:45 An Approach Using Qualitative Probabilistic Networks for Knowledge Modeling in Cognitive Wireless Networks
P. Balamuralidhar (Tata Consultancy Services, India)
This is an exploratory study on the suitability of using Qualitative Probabilistic Networks (QPN) for knowledge modeling and inference in Cognitive Wireless Networks. This study brings out the advantages and issues involved in using QPN for modeling the dynamic behavior of wireless networks. Application and limitations of using QPN is illustrated with the modeling of a cognitive radio link and subsequently its performance while driving a link adaptation for robustness. The same methodology is extendable to model network layer behaviors as well.
2:07 Futuristic Backhaul Networks: Transport Protocols Perspective
Sri Hanuma Chitti (Aalborg University, Denmark); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Knut Ovsthus (Bergen University College, Norway); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
The mobile internet data traffic is growing rapidly in non-uniform peak traffic patterns. Emerging radio access technologies are forcing the backhaul network architectures to undergo a major transition in the direction of heterogeneous architectures. This paper provides a brief overview on the applicable protocols with reference to a futuristic backhaul network model serving a variety of radio access technologies. The data traffic paths in the backhaul network are mapped to the candidate protocols mentioned in the paper. In the attempt of developing flexible network architectures for transporting humongous amounts of data generated from next generation radio access technologies, some challenges in protocol layer are presented.

## Thursday, June 27

### 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM (America/New_York)

#### RRM1: Radio Resource Management 1

10:30 Cell Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Scenarios: A 3GPP LTE Case Study
Simao Eduardo (Instituto de Telecomunicações / IST-Technical University of LisbonT, Portugal); Albena Mihovska (Aalborg Universitet, Denmark); António J. Rodrigues (IT / Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark)
In heterogeneous scenarios of 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) load imbalances degrade performance. Under the Self-Organized Networks (SON) concept an Admission Control algorithm is proposed. It performs Congestion Control/Load Balancing and Inter-Cell Interference (ICI) avoidance in order to enhance system performance. Centralized and Uncoordinated (distributed) frameworks are proposed. A channel utility prototype and a Stochastic Admission process form a basis in the Uncoordinated case. Uncoordinated is suboptimal, although it provides a viable solution for uncoordinated small cell deployments. Simulations reveal that Uncoordinated is near-optimal and sometimes outperforms Centralized. Finally, Congestion Control together with ICI avoidance proved to perform better than using Power Allocation.
10:52 Interference Analysis in a LTE-A HetNet Scenario: Coordination vs. Uncoordination
Nuno Monteiro (Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon & Aalborg University, Portugal); Albena Mihovska (Aalborg Universitet, Denmark); António J. Rodrigues (IT / Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal); Neeli Rashmi Prasad (Center for TeleInFrastructure (CTIF), Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark)
The electromagnetic spectrum is a scarce resource that needs to be efficiently and effectively reused to allow the provider the necessary conditions to satisfy its costumers increasing demands. It is vital that the reuse of the spectrum does not lead to high interference scenarios. The use of heterogeneous networks (HetNets) allows a better spatial reuse of the spectrum. However it also leads to higher interference scenarios. Thus, it is necessary to create tools that help to mitigate the interference, increasing the effectiveness of spectrum reuse. This paper evaluates interference-coordination algorithms based on game theory for scenarios with different access policies. The results are given in terms of user and cell throughputs. They show that although the use of closed access policies can benefit from the use of cell-driven algorithms, open access policy is preferential to use with user-driven algorithms, in particular for the increase of the service capacity..
11:15 Performance Analysis Of The OFDM-IDMA System with carrier frequency offset in a Fast Fading Multipath Channel
Muyiwa B Balogun (University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa); Olutayo O. Oyerinde (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa); Stanley H. Mneney (University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa)
The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing-Interleave Division Multiple Access (OFDM-IDMA) scheme, which offers significant improvement on the performance of the conventional IDMA technique, has been in the forefront of recent mobile communication researches as it is expected to deliver a high quality, flexible and efficient high data-rate mobile transmission. Most papers on OFDM-IDMA scheme assume a system free of carrier frequency offset. However, the scheme is susceptible to synchronization errors and performance degradation because of the presence of OFDM, which is highly sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) especially at the uplink. The effect of CFO on the performance of the scheme, in a slow fading multipath channel scenario, is therefore investigated, and analyzed. In addition, the effect of CFO on the performance of the OFDM-IDMA scheme, in a fast fading multipath channel, which has not been hitherto reported in literature, is investigated and analyzed. Simulation results clearly show that the presence of CFO degrades the performance of the system. Furthermore, results show that system performance degradation due to CFO, increases in a fast fading multipath channel in comparison with slow fading channel scenario.
11:37 Energy Efficiency in Cognitive Radio Network
Purnendu Shekhar Mani Tripathi (Aalborg University & Centre for Teleinfrastructure (CTIF), Denmark)
Cognitive radio techniques have been introduced to improve the spectrum utilization in already allocated spectrum band to licensed user as well as it promotes green communications. Under spectrum sharing model, secondary users can share spectrum with primary users under condition that total interference caused by SUs should not be exceeded from a predefined level. Energy efficiency is one of the important metric in cognitive radio networks as it has to work under strict transmit power constraint. In this paper we explore how better energy efficiency can be achieved in a spectrum sharing environment. Our analysis shows that energy efficiency in cognitive radio network is better when number of secondary users is more than available channels.

### 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM (America/New_York)

#### RRM2: Radio Resource Management 2

1:00 Economic and Environmental Comparative Analysis on Macro-Femtocell deployments in LTE-A
Filipe Vaz (ISCTE-IUL / IT & Cisco Systems, Inc, Portugal); Pedro Sebastiao (Intituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal); Luis Carlos BS Goncalves (ISCTE-IUL & Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal); Américo Correia (Instituto de Telecomunicações, Portugal)
This paper describes the economic and environmental comparative analysis performed on macro and femtocell deployments and most prevalent results obtained. Four specific scenarios are studied and, for each one, an evaluation is made in terms of capacity, cost effectiveness and expected carbon emissions. It provides mobile networks operators (MNO) with relevant information, enabling them to adapt business models and deployment approaches to current and future trends in a sustainable way, while minimizing capital (CAPEX) and operation expenses (OPEX).
1:30 Use of Positioning Information for Performance Enhancement of Uncoordinated Heterogeneous Network Deployment
Plamen Trifonov Semov (Center for TeleInfrastruktur, Denmark); Albena Mihovska (Aalborg Universitet, Denmark); Ramjee Prasad (Aalborg University, Denmark); Vladimir Poulkov (Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria)
This paper proposes a novel algorithm for resource allocation during Carrier Aggregation (CA) in a semi-and uncoordinated deployment of Heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The algorithm is based on the principles of reinforcement learning (RL) and game theory and utilizes information about the locations of the mobile users and neighboring cells to solve the problem of dynamic physical resource assignment in uncoordinated scenario. The current results from ongoing work show increased cell throughput, while maintaining an adequate user throughput.
2:00 Asynchronous Distributed Parallelization of Mobile Network Optimization Algorithms
Yuanzhou Ye (University of Reading/ Symantec Corporation, United Kingdom); Graham Megson (University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom); José O. Cadenas (University of Reading, United Kingdom)
It has been years since the introduction of the Dynamic Network Optimization (DNO) concept, yet the DNO development is still at its infant stage, largely due to a lack of breakthrough in minimizing the lengthy optimization runtime. Our previous work, a distributed parallel solution, has achieved a significant speed gain. To cater for the increased optimization complexity pressed by the uptake of smartphones and tablets, however, this paper examines the potential areas for further improvement and presents a novel asynchronous distributed parallel design that minimizes the inter-process communications. The new approach is implemented and applied to real-life projects whose results demonstrate an augmented acceleration of 7.5 times on a 16-core distributed system compared to 6.1 of our previous solution. Moreover, there is no degradation in the optimization outcome. This is a solid sprint towards the realization of DNO.